Center for Biological Diversity

For Immediate Release, March 24, 2022


Rodi Rosensweig, The Humane Society of the United States/Humane Society International/Humane Society Legislative Fund, (202) 809-8711,
Tanya Sanerib, Center for Biological Diversity, (206) 379-7363,

U.S. Endangered Species Act Protection Sought for Hippos

Investigations Show Thriving Market for Hippo Parts in United States

WASHINGTON— Wildlife protection groups today petitioned the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to protect hippos under the Endangered Species Act. The legal petition was filed by the Humane Society of the United States, Humane Society International, Humane Society Legislative Fund and Center for Biological Diversity.

One of Africa’s most recognizable species, the common hippopotamus faces a high risk of extinction and is disappearing from the wild. With only as few as 115,000 adult hippos remaining in the wild in Africa today and increasing and unabating threats from habitat loss and degradation, poaching and trade in hippo parts — teeth, skulls, ivory, skin and meat — the future of hippos is uncertain.

The comprehensive analysis of trade included in today’s petition demonstrates that hippos are highly sought after by traders, poachers and trophy hunters for their ivory tusks and other body parts. The United States plays a key role in this trade. Over the last decade, the United States imported more hippo parts and products than any other country, including more than 9,000 teeth, 5,700 skin pieces, 4,400 small leather products, 2,000 trophies and 1,700 carvings. These imports represent a combined minimum of 3,081 hippos killed for legal trade. Many more hippos are poached and their parts enter trade. Listing under the Endangered Species Act would ensure near-total restrictions on most imports and sales.

“Hippos are being needlessly slaughtered for commercial trade and trophy hunting,” said Adam Peyman, director of wildlife programs for Humane Society International. “As the leading importer of hippo parts, the United States should be ashamed of the role they play in the decline of this iconic species. If we don’t protect them now, hippos may disappear forever.”

Undercover investigations by Humane Society International and the Humane Society of the United States between 2018 and 2021 revealed a thriving market of hippo parts and products for sale in the United States. Investigators found thousands of hippo items, including trinkets made from carved teeth, hippo ivory-handled knives, hippo leather purses, belts and boots, hippo skulls and a hippo skull table. Investigators recorded sellers of hippo parts explaining how they skirt state laws meant to protect hippos.

“We cannot continue to allow thousands of hippos to be killed for their teeth or skin, for a ridiculous trinket or a pair of boots. This iconic species must be granted urgent protection under the Endangered Species Act to end this cruel cycle. We will not sit back and watch hippos vanish,” said Kitty Block, president and CEO of the Humane Society of the United States.

“Limiting U.S. imports by listing hippos under the ESA will grant them important protections and will set the stage for other countries to follow,” said Tracie Letterman, vice president of federal affairs for Humane Society Legislative Fund. “As conservation leaders, but also the leading importer of hippo parts and products, the U.S. has a critical role to play in saving hippos from extinction.”

Hippos are also under threat from habitat loss and destruction. Dependent on freshwater systems, hippos are threatened by drought, agricultural and other water diversions, and loss of grazing areas. Climate change is predicted to cause further droughts in sub-Saharan Africa with detrimental consequences for hippos, reducing their birth rates and increasing their mortality.

“Adored for their yawning jaws and distinctive ears, these monumental animals deserve to thrive in the wild, and U.S. protections will help ensure they do,” said Tanya Sanerib, international legal director at the Center for Biological Diversity. “Hippos are irreplaceable ecologically, playing key roles in both aquatic and grassland systems. We’re losing keystone species like hippos in part because of human exploitation. In the middle of an extinction crisis, we can’t ignore the huge volumes of wildlife captured, killed and traded globally to supply U.S. demand, including for hippos and their parts.”

The Fish and Wildlife Service has 90 days to review and respond to the petition and determine whether a listing may be warranted.


A hippo in Uganda. Photo credit: Brett Hartl / Center for Biological Diversity. Image is available for media use.

Founded in 1954, the Humane Society of the United States fights the big fights to end suffering for all animals. Together with millions of supporters, we take on puppy mills, factory farms, trophy hunts, animal testing and other cruel industries. With our affiliates, we rescue and care for tens of thousands of animals every year through our animal rescue team’s work and other hands-on animal care services. We fight all forms of animal cruelty to achieve the vision behind our name: A humane society.

With a presence in more than 50 countries, Humane Society International works around the globe to promote the human-animal bond, rescue and protect dogs and cats, improve farm animal welfare, protect wildlife, promote animal-free testing and research, respond to natural disasters and confront cruelty to animals in all of its forms.

Humane Society Legislative Fund works to pass animal protection laws at the state and federal level, to educate the public about animal protection issues and support humane candidates for office. Formed in 2004, HSLF is incorporated under section 501(c)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code as a separate lobbying affiliate of the Humane Society of the United States. Visit us on the web at, read our blog at and follow us on Facebook at and on Twitter @HSLegFund.

The Center for Biological Diversity is a national, nonprofit conservation organization with more than 1.7 million members and online activists dedicated to the protection of endangered species and wild places.

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