Center for Biological Diversity

For Immediate Release, April 11, 2023


Tom Pelton, Environmental Integrity Project, (443) 510-2574,
Hannah Connor, Center for Biological Diversity, (202) 681-1676,

EPA Sued Over Unregulated Water Pollution From Oil Refineries, Plastics Plants, Other Industries

WASHINGTON— Environmental groups sued the Environmental Protection Agency today for failing to set limits on harmful chemicals like cyanide, benzene, mercury and chlorides in wastewater emitted by oil refineries and plants that produce chemicals, fertilizer, plastics, pesticides and nonferrous metals.

The Clean Water Act requires the EPA to limit discharges of industrial pollutants based on the best available wastewater treatment methods, and to tighten those limits at least once every five years where data show treatment technologies have improved. But the agency has never set limits for many pollutants and has failed to update the few decades-old limits that exist — including limits set almost 40 years ago for oil refineries (1985), plastics manufacturers (1984) and fertilizer plants (1986).

Outdated pollution-control technology standards meant that, for example, 81 oil refineries across the United States dumped 15.7 million pounds of nitrogen and 1.6 billion pounds of chlorides, sulfates and other dissolved solids (which can be harmful to aquatic life) into waterways in 2021.

Twenty-one nitrogen fertilizer plants discharged 7.7 million pounds of total nitrogen, which causes algae blooms and fish-killing “dead-zones,” and proposed new plants will add millions of additional pounds to that load. The EPA estimates that 229 inorganic chemical plants dumped over 2 billion pounds of pollution into waterways in 2019.

“No one should get a free pass to pollute. It’s completely unacceptable that EPA has, for decades, ignored the law and failed to require modern wastewater pollution controls for oil refineries and petrochemical and plastics plants,” said Jen Duggan, deputy director of the Environmental Integrity Project, which coordinated the action by the 13 environmental groups. “We expect EPA to do its job and protect America’s waterways and public health as required by the Clean Water Act.”

“For decades the EPA has let these dirty industries pollute our rivers and bays instead of making them keep pace with advances in technologies that tackle water pollution, as the Clean Water Act demands,” said Hannah Connor, environmental health deputy director at the Center for Biological Diversity. “Forcing people and wildlife like endangered Atlantic sturgeon to bear the weight of toxic water pollution while industries rake in record profits isn’t just morally wrong, it’s also legally indefensible. The EPA needs to bring pollution standards into the 21st century.”

Despite the legal mandate for regular reviews and updates to keep pace with technology, the guidelines for 40 of 59 industries regulated by the EPA were last updated 30 or more years ago, with 17 of those dating back to the 1970s. Outdated standards mean more water pollution is pouring into U.S. waters than should be allowed because some plants are using technology standards from the Reagan era — before common use of the Internet, email or cell phones.

The lawsuit was filed today in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit in San Francisco by the Environmental Integrity Project, the Center for Biological Diversity, Clean Water Action, Waterkeeper Alliance, Food & Water Watch, Environment America, Bayou City Waterkeeper, Black Warrior Riverkeeper, Healthy Gulf, San Antonio Bay Estuarine Waterkeeper, San Francisco Baykeeper, the Surfrider Foundation and Tennessee Riverkeeper.

The lawsuit challenges the EPA’s decision in January not to update outdated and weak water-pollution control technology standards (called “effluent limitation guidelines” or ELGs and pretreatment standards) for seven key industrial sectors: petroleum refineries, inorganic and organic chemical manufacturers, and factories that manufacture plastics, fertilizer, pesticides, and nonferrous metals.

A January report by the Environmental Integrity Project, “Oil’s Unchecked Outfalls,” revealed that 81 refineries across the United States discharged into waterways 15.7 million pounds of algae-feeding nitrogen in 2021 — as much as from 128 municipal sewage plants — along with 60,000 pounds of selenium (which can cause mutations in fish), among other pollutants.

The six other industries with weak and outdated EPA effluent guidelines targeted in the lawsuit filed by the environmental groups are:

  • Organic chemical and plastics plants: The EPA estimates that 609 facilities across the nation manufacture plastic resins, PFAS “forever chemicals,” synthetic fibers (rayon, polyester, etc.), and other chemicals and discharge pollution to waterways. These plants release millions of pounds of pollution every year, including nitrogen, benzene and lead. The effluent guidelines for the sector have not been updated since 1993 and have no limits on, for example, stormwater pollution or on plastic pellets — called “nurdles” — that often escape in stormwater or wastewater.
  • Plastics molding and forming: 120 plants that mold and form plastic products discharge into U.S. waterways, according to an EPA estimate. But the agency has not revised its technology-based limits for this sector since the EPA first set the limits in 1984, almost 40 years ago, even though the standards are supposed to reflect “best available technology.” The toxic pollutants discharged by this industry without any federal limits include phthalates, PFAS, nitrogen, N-N-Dimethylformamide, and microplastics.
  • Fertilizer manufacturing: The EPA estimates that 59 chemical fertilizer manufacturing plants discharged nearly 90 million pounds of pollution into waterways in 2019. Among these are 21 plants that make nitrogen-based fertilizer and release millions of pounds of nitrogen into U.S. waterways. The EPA has set no limits on several fertilizer plant pollutants, including selenium, total chromium, zinc, iron, nickel, cadmium, cyanide and lead. The current effluent guidelines for fertilizer factories have not been updated since 1986.
  • Nonferrous metal manufacturing: 56 facilities in this manufacturing sector (metals excluding iron and steel) dumped over 100 million pounds of pollution into waterways in 2019, according to an EPA estimate. But pollution-control guidelines for this industry have not been updated since 1990 and the current limits for this industry do not include any controls on stormwater pollution, for example.
  • Inorganic chemicals plants: Inorganic chemical plants, which make products like vinyl chloride, are one of the largest industrial dischargers of toxic pollution in the United States, with 229 factories dumping over 2 billion pounds of pollution into waterways in 2019, according to an EPA estimate. But the EPA has not updated pollution limits for this sector since 1984.
  • Pesticide manufacturing: The EPA estimates that 31 pesticide chemical plants discharge pollution into U.S. waterways, including insect-killing ingredients, as well as nitrogen, benzene, cyanide and more. But the EPA has not updated the guidelines for pesticide manufacturing since 1998.

“Outdated standards allow far too many industries, from plastic producers to oil refineries, to pour their pollution into our rivers, bays, lakes and streams,” said John Rumpler, senior clean water director at Environment America. “It's time for the EPA to rein in this pollution, as the public would expect and the Clean Water Act demands.”

“The Clean Water Act is our best defense against unregulated industrial water pollution, but we continue to be exposed to large volumes of dangerous, toxic pollutants in our drinking water supplies, fisheries and recreational waters because EPA is not fully implementing the law,” said Kelly Hunter Foster, Waterkeeper Alliance senior attorney. “EPA must update pollution standards consistent with modern technologies that can reduce or even eliminate the discharge of hazardous pollutants like heavy metals, benzene and mercury.”

“Louisiana's waterways have been burdened by water pollution from refineries and chemical plants, and so there are no excuses for EPA to continue missing opportunities to improve standards for these industries,” said Andrew Whitehurst, water program director at Healthy Gulf. “Technology-based guidelines for pollution-control systems must evolve with improvements in water cleanup technology.”

“Those of us living in Houston are sick of sacrificing our health and ecosystems to inadequately regulated industries,” said Kristen Schlemmer with the Houston-based Bayou City Waterkeeper. “These burdens are heaviest on our lower-wealth, Black and brown neighbors living in the shadow of industrial facilities along the Houston Ship Channel, who face increased risks of cancer and don't have equal access to our natural bayous and bays. Through this lawsuit, our hope is to get better regulations in place so our home can stop being treated as a sacrifice zone.”

“Oil refinery pollution doesn’t belong in San Francisco Bay or in any of the nation’s waterways, and it certainly doesn’t belong in our neighborhoods,” said Eric Buecher, managing attorney at San Francisco Baykeeper. “It’s high time we held the EPA accountable and compel the agency to crack down on the toxic pollution from oil refineries that's threatening both wildlife and human health around San Francisco Bay and across the country.”

“Once again, EPA has failed to update the antiquated and ineffective water pollution regulations for these industrial dischargers, including plastics plants and fertilizer and pesticide manufacturers, allowing them to continue wreaking havoc on the environment,” said Erin Doran, a senior attorney with Food & Water Watch. “Enough is enough — we’re taking EPA to court.”

“Regardless of where a person lives, they should be able to fish or swim in their local river or lake without fear of getting sick from pollution, and they shouldn’t be burdened with a higher water bill because a refinery or plastics plant upstream contaminated their drinking water source,” said Jennifer Peters, national water programs director at Clean Water Action. “EPA must do its job and update these archaic pollution standards as required by the Clean Water Act as soon as possible.”

“Surfrider is pleased to join our coalition partners and Environmental Integrity Project in calling for EPA to fulfill its statutory duties to protect clean water and public health and ensure that technology-based standards for industrial polluters like petroleum refineries and pesticides plants reflect the realities of 2023,” said Staley Prom, senior legal associate at Surfrider Foundation. “Surfrider members surf, swim, snorkel, fish and recreate in waters impacted by EPA’s failure to act and deserve the protections of modern technology to minimize water pollution."

“It is a shame EPA has allowed industrial polluters such as chemical plants and oil refineries to escape accountability under the Clean Water Act by operating for decades without proper pollution controls in place,” said Nelson Brooke with Black Warrior Riverkeeper (in Alabama). “It is imperative EPA swiftly right these wrongs by requiring modern pollution controls for industrial facilities in order to protect rivers and all the people and critters who depend on them to be clean and safe.”

"Pollution from plastics, pesticides, petroleum and a grim litany of other toxins continue to plague public water supplies,” said David Whiteside, founder of Tennessee Riverkeeper. “The Clean Water Act requires factories to use the best available methods to treat their pollution, but the EPA has failed to enforce this provision. Our lawsuit seeks to reduce a vast array of toxins in our environment from numerous industries by requiring polluters to finally use modern technology and obey the law.”

Note to reporters: An online press conference on the lawsuit will be held at 1 p.m. EST on April 11 via ZOOM.

Age of EPA Water Control Technology Guidelines for Industrial Sectors in Lawsuit
Industrial Category Promulgation Revision Age in Years
Inorganic chemicals 1974 1984 39
Plastics molding & forming 1984 Never 39
Petroleum refining 1974 1985 38
Fertilizer manufacturing 1974 1986 37
Nonferrous metals manufacturing 1976 1990 33
Organic chemicals & plastics 1987 1993 30
Pesticide chemicals 1978 1998 25

The Center for Biological Diversity is a national, nonprofit conservation organization with more than 1.7 million members and online activists dedicated to the protection of endangered species and wild places.

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