Center for Biological Diversity

For Immediate Release, March 15, 2023


Jackson Chiappinelli, Earthjustice, (Eastern time zone), (585) 402-2005,
Becca Bowe, Earthjustice (Pacific time zone), (415) 217-2093,
Kristen Monsell, Center for Biological Diversity, (914) 806-3467,
Sue Libenson, Defenders of Wildlife, (907) 303-0022,
Brittany Miller, Friends of the Earth (Pacific time zone), (202) 222-0746,
Tyler Kruse, Greenpeace USA, (808) 741-2791,
Anne Hawke, Natural Resources Defense Council, (646) 823-4518,

Biden Administration Sued Over Willow Oil Project in Alaska’s Western Arctic

Environmental Review Fails to Account for Project’s Full Climate Impact

ANCHORAGE, Alaska— Earthjustice filed a lawsuit yesterday on behalf of conservation groups to stop the massive Willow oil drilling project in Alaska’s Western Arctic, which the Biden administration approved March 13. This approval of an enormous new carbon pollution source undermines President Biden’s promises to slash greenhouse gas emissions in half by 2030 and transition the United States to clean energy.

Trustees for Alaska filed a similar legal challenge on behalf of Sovereign Iñupiat for a Living Arctic and conservation groups.

The Bureau of Land Management’s record of decision approving Willow essentially greenlights ConocoPhillips’ desired blueprint while ignoring pleas from around 5.6 million people, including leadership from the nearby village of Nuiqsut, asking the federal government to halt the project.

Even though the Biden administration describes its approval as a scaled-down version of the plan, the project will still add about 260 million metric tons of carbon emissions into the atmosphere over the next 30 years — the equivalent of nearly 70 coal-fired power plants operating for a year. The project would cause irreparable harm to the environment, Arctic wildlife and nearby people who depend on the land for subsistence.

Interior has relied on a mistaken conclusion that it could not deny nor meaningfully limit the project, and it considered project alternatives that ranged only from allowing ConocoPhillips to develop 100% of the available oil to allowing it to develop 92% of the oil. The Biden administration had the authority to stop Willow — yet chose not to.

The lawsuit also takes the administration to task for neglecting to consider the additional climate pollution of future development dependent upon Willow project, thus failing to assess Willow’s full climate impact. ConocoPhillips has described Willow to its investors as the “next great Alaska hub,” saying it had identified a staggering amount of oil, possibly as much as 3 billion barrels, of nearby prospects that could be accessed if the Willow infrastructure were in place.

In addition, the lawsuit challenges the administration’s failure to properly consider the project’s impacts on polar bears, ringed seals and bearded seals, as required by the Endangered Species Act.

Earthjustice and clients, together with co-counsel NRDC and the Center for Biological Diversity, released the following statements:

“It’s shocking that Biden greenlit the Willow project despite knowing how much harm it’ll cause Arctic communities and wildlife,” said Kristen Monsell, a senior attorney at the Center for Biological Diversity. “Now we have to step up and fight for these priceless wild places and the people and animals that depend on them. It’s clear that we can’t count on Biden to keep his word on confronting climate change and halting drilling on public lands.”

“We are enraged that the administration has again approved Willow despite the clear threats posed to the Western Arctic’s vulnerable environment and communities,” said Hallie Templeton, legal director for Friends of the Earth. “Our prior victory forcing BLM to re-do its environmental analysis should have proven that more must be done to protect our last remaining wild places from Big Oil's exploitation. We can only hope that the court sees this for what it is: another unlawful, faulty, and disastrous decision that must be stopped.”

“The Biden administration’s approval of ConocoPhillips’ Willow project in the western Arctic of Alaska is a disappointing leap backwards,” said Nicole Whittington-Evans, Defenders of Wildlife’s Alaska program director. “This would further imperil climate-sensitive wildlife including endangered polar bears, lock in oil and gas drilling and massive greenhouse gas emissions for decades, and offset the administration’s priority to rein in climate change.”

“The science is clear. We cannot afford any new oil or gas projects if we are going to avoid climate catastrophe. Approving what would be the largest oil extraction project on federal lands is incredibly hypocritical from President Biden who in his State of the Union called the climate crisis an ​existential threat,” said Natalie Mebane, climate director for Greenpeace USA. “Millions of people — from Indigenous groups to former vice-president Al Gore — have come out in opposition to the project. The Department of the Interior has substantial concerns about the Willow project and the harm it could cause to the climate, wildlife, and people. This is a make-or-break moment for the president’s climate legacy. He needs to listen to the people, his own departments, and himself when he says we have an obligation to confront the climate crisis. The first step is for him to follow the science and stop approving oil and gas projects.”

“We’re asking the court to halt this illegal project and ensure the public knows its true climate impacts,” said Christy Goldfuss, chief policy impact officer for the Natural Resources Defense Council. “Permitting Willow to go forward is green-lighting a carbon bomb. It would set back the climate fight and embolden an industry hell-bent on destroying the planet.”

“There is no question that the administration possessed the legal authority to stop Willow — yet it chose not to,” said Erik Grafe, deputy managing attorney in Earthjustice’s Alaska regional office. “It greenlit this carbon bomb without adequately assessing its climate impacts or weighing its options to limit the damage and say no. The climate crisis is one of the greatest challenges we face, and President Biden has promised to do all he can to meet the moment. We’re bringing today’s lawsuit to ensure that the administration follows the law and ultimately makes good on this promise for future generations.”


This is the second time the Bureau of Land Management has approved the Willow project. The Trump administration first approved the project in 2020. Conservation and Alaska Native groups challenged the approval, and the court threw it out as unlawful in 2021. It instructed BLM to reassess the project’s full climate impacts and consider alternatives that would lessen its overall impacts. In approving Willow for the second time, the Biden administration has failed to heed these instructions, producing an environmental analysis that falls short in these same respects.

As approved, the project includes three drill sites, gravel roads, a central processing facility, an operations center, an air strip, hundreds of miles of ice roads, and it allows drilling and roads in the Teshekpuk Lake special area, one of the most important and sensitive areas in the Arctic. ConocoPhillips’ operations would use chillers to re-freeze thawing permafrost, to make the ground stable enough for drilling to continue.

Further, approval of Willow sets into motion a westward expansion of oil development into additional ecologically sensitive areas critical for both subsistence and the protection of wildlife species that are already threatened by climate change.

The reserve is home to polar bears, which are listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act, plus musk oxen, caribou and hundreds of thousands of migratory birds. Two caribou herds — the Western Arctic and the Teshekpuk Lake herds — calve and migrate through the region and are a vital subsistence resource for Alaska Native communities in northern and western Alaska.

Northeast National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Photo by Bob Wick (BLM). Image is available for media use.

The Center for Biological Diversity is a national, nonprofit conservation organization with more than 1.7 million members and online activists dedicated to the protection of endangered species and wild places.

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