Center for Biological Diversity

Profile of 29 Species Included in Agreement

Holmgren's milk-vetch (Astragalus holmgreniorum)

Range & Status: AZ, UT. Holmgren's milk-vetch was first discovered in 1941 but not rediscovered until 1979. Three small populations of this perennial legume occur in Washington County, Utah and adjacent Mohave County, Arizona.
Threats: Urban development, off-road vehicles, grazing, exotic weeds, and mining.
Listing History: Designated as a category 2 candidate on 11-28-83. Upgraded to a category 1 in 1993. Listing petition filed on 6-2-99 by Center for Biological Diversity. Listing proposal published by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service on 4-12-00.
Action To Be Taken: Final listing rule.


Shivwits Milk-Vetch (Astragalus Ampullarioides)

Range & Status: UT. This inconspicuous legume was first collected in the late 1970s. Five small populations are known to exist near the city of St. George in Washington County, Utah.
Threats: Urban development, off-road vehicles, grazing, exotic weeds, and mining.
Listing History: Listing petition filed on 1-01-75 by the Smithsonian Institution. Designated a category 2 candidate on 2-21-90. Upgraded to a category on 1 2-28-96. Second listing petition filed on 6-2-99 by the Center for Biological Diversity. Listing proposal published by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service on 4-12-00.
Action To Be Taken: Final listing rule.


Scaleshell mussel (Leptodea leptodo)

Range & Status: AL, AR, IL, IN, IA, KY, MN, MO, OH, OK, SD, TN, WI. Within the last 50 years, the distribution of this freshwater clam has been drastically reduced from its former range of 53 rivers in 13 eastern states within the Mississippi River Basin, to a few scattered populations in Missouri, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. It has been completely extirpated from the upper Mississippi Basin. Of the 13 extant populations only 3 are known to be stable.
Threats: Water quality degradation, reservoir construction, sedimentation, channelization, and dredging.
Listing History: Designated a category 2 candidate for on 5-22-84. Upgraded to a category 1 on 10-16-98. Proposed listing rule published by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service on 8-13-99.
Action To Be Taken: Final listing rule.


Ohlone tiger beetle (Cicindela ohlone)

Range & Status: CA. The Ohlone tiger beetle was discovered in 1987 and to date no larvae have been found. It is known from only 5 sites in Santa Cruz County.
Threats: Urban development and competition by invasive exotic species.
Listing History: Listing petition filed on 2-28-93 by Randal Morgan. Petition denied on 03-01-96. Second listing petition filed on 4-30-97 by Grey Hayes. Designated as a category 1 candidate on 10-25-99. Proposal endangered listing issued by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service on 2-11-00.
Action To Be Taken: Final listing rule.


Spalding's catchfly (Silene spaldingii)

Range & Status: ID, MT, OR, BC. This long lived relative of the carnation family is known from a total of 52 populations on mesic grasslands dominated by native perennial grasses in its historical range of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia.
Threats: Urban and agricultural development, grazing and trampling by domestic livestock, herbicide treatment, and competition from non-native plants.
Listing History: Listing petition filed on 1-01-75 by the Smithsonian Institution. First listing proposal issued on 6-16-76. Designated a category 1 candidate on 12-15-80. Designated as "warranted but precluded" for listing on 10-13-83. Second listing petition filed on 2-27-95 by the Biodiversity Legal Foundation and the Montana and Washington Native Plant Societies. 90-day finding issued on 11-16-98. Second listing proposal was issued by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service on 12-3-99.
Action To Be Taken: Final listing rule.


Vermillion darter (Etheostoma chermocki)

Range & Status: AL. The vermilion darter is found only in 7.2 miles within the Turkey Creek drainage, in northeast Jefferson County, Alabama. This small fish is associated with areas dominated by fine gravel with some coarse gravel or cobble.
Threats: Impoundments and water quality degradation from non point sources such as agriculture and urbanization, and from inadequate wastewater treatment.
Listing History: Listing petition filed on 7-23-98 by Robert Reid. Second listing petition filed on 8-18-98 by Dr. Paul Blanchard. 90-day finding issued on 1-26-99. Proposed listing as endangered issued by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service on 4-18-00.
Action To Be Taken: Final listing rule.


Mississippi gopher frog (Rana capito sevosa)

Range & Status: AL, MS, LA. Historically, this population of the dusky gopher frog was widespread west of Mobile and Tombigbee Rivers in Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. The only surviving population is restricted to a single breeding pond in Harrison County, Mississippi.
Threats: A massive housing development has been proposed 656 feet the species only remaining breeding pond. It is also threatened by the construction and expansion of two highways in the vicinity of the pond, and a proposed reservoir.
Listing History: Designated a category 2 candidate for listing on 12-30-82. Upgraded to a category 1 candidate on 11-21-91. Proposed listing rule issued by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service on 5-23-00. Emergency listing petition filed by Biodiversity Legal Foundation and Defenders of Wildlife on 5-21-01.
Action To Be Taken: Final listing rule.


Golden Sedge (Carex lutea)

Range & Status: NC. This rare perennial sedge was first discovered in 1991. Only eight populations are known, all in Pender and Onslow counties, North Carolina, where it is associated with sandy soils overlying coquina limestone deposits
Threats: Urban development, mining, drainage activities associated with logging and agriculture, herbicide use, and suppression of fire.
Listing History: Designated a category 1 candidate on 10-16-98. Listing proposal issued by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service on 8-16-99.
Action To Be Taken: Final listing rule.


Showy Stickseed (Hackelia venusta)

Range & Status: WA. Washington's rarest plant is limited to one small population on an unstable, granitic scree on the lower slopes of Tumwater Canyon, Chelan County, Washington. The population has declined to the current size of less than 300 individuals.
Threats: Wildfire, fire suppression, non-native plants, highway maintenance activities, herbicide spraying.
Listing History: Designated a category 1 candidate on 12-15-80. Downgraded to a category 2 on 9-27-85. Upgraded to a category 1 on 2-21-90. Removed as a candidate for taxonomic reasons on 2-26-96. Reinstated as a candidate in June 1997. Proposed listing as endangered issued by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service on 2-14-00.
Action To Be Taken: Final listing rule.


Buena Vista Lake ornate shrew (Sorex ornatus relictus)

Range & Status: CA. Historically limited to the marshlands of the southern San Joaquin Valley, an area which is now almost completely cultivated. Thought extinct, the species was rediscovered in 1985 at a permanent pond located within the former Kern Lake Preserve 16 miles south of Bakersfield.. No more than 38 individuals have been observed since they were rediscovered.
Threats: Agricultural practices which desicate wetlands, increase levels of toxic selenium in the surface soil, and stochastic events.
Listing History: Designated a category 2 candidate on 9-18-85. Listing petition filed on 4-18-88 by Interfaith Council for the Protection of Animals and Nature. 90-day finding issued on 12-30-88. Upgraded to a category 1 candidate on 11-21-91. Proposed listing issued by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service on 5-1-00.
Action To Be Taken: Final listing rule.
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San Diego Ambrosia (Ambrosia pumila)

Range & Status: CA, Baja Mexico. This Perennial relative of the sunflower is restricted to San Diego and Riverside Counties, California and Baja California, Mexico, from Colonet to Lake Chapala. Its habitat is flat or sloping grasslands, often along valley bottoms or areas adjacent to vernal pools.
Threats: Urban Development, road building, non-native plants, livestock grazing, off-road vehicles.
Listing History: Original listing petition filed in 1978 by the Smithsonian Institution. Declared "warranted but precluded" for endangered listing on 10-13-83. Second listing petition filed on 1-9-97 by Center for Biodiversity and California Native Plant Society. 90-day finding issued by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service following litigation on 4-9-99. Proposed endangered listed issued by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service following litigation on 12-29-99.
Action To Be Taken: Final listing rule.


Southern California Mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa)

Range & Status:CA. The California population segment of this species was historically in San Diego, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Los Angeles Counties at elevations between 600 and 7,500 ft. It has been lost from 99% of its former habitat. Now found in just 9 isolated sites, in 4 small streams in the San Gabriel, San Jacinto, and San Bernardino Mountains on Forest Service land. The population on Mount. Palomar in Northern San Diego County has now been extirpated.
Threats: Habitat loss, predation by exotic trout, pollution, recreational mining, stochastic impacts.
Listing History: First listed as a candidate species in 1991. Listing petition filed on 7-13-95 by Biodiversity Legal Foundation. 90-day finding issued by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service on 7-08-97. Listing proposal issued by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service on 12-22-99.
Action To Be Taken: Final listing rule.


Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Rana chiricahuensis)

Range & Status: AZ, NM, Northern Mexico. Once found in over 400 populations along streams and wetlands in southern New Mexico, southern Arizona and northern Mexico. Despite recovery efforts this stocky leopard frog has been reduced to just 79 marginal populations in the U.S.
Threats: Overgrazing, wetland draining, urban sprawl, exotic species, and fungal disease.
Listing History: Designated a category 2 candidate on 11-21-91. Upgraded to a category 1 candidate on 2-28-96. Listing petition filed on 6-5-98 by Center for Biological Diversity and Sky Island Watch. Proposed rule issued by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service on 6-14-98.
Action To Be Taken: Final listing rule.


Coastal Cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) (Southwest Washington/Columbia River)

Range & Status: OR, WA. Southwestern Washington/Columbia River, As their name suggests the coastal cutthroat trout rarely make migrations into the marine environment further than 6 miles from land. There have been dramatic declines in anadromous Cutthroat trout populations (populations that migrate into the sea).
Threats: Logging and grazing of uplands, dredging, filling, and diking of estuarine areas.
Listing History: Listing petition filed on 12-18-97 by Oregon Natural Resources Council. 90-day finding issued on 3-23-98. Listing proposal issued by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service on 4-5-99.
Action To Be Taken: Final listing rule.


Kootenai River Burbot (Lota lota)

Range & Status: ID, MT, BC (Canada). The Kootenai River burbot is limited to the Kootenai Basin in Idaho, Montana and British Columbia. It is often refered to as the "Leopard of the Kootenai".The population has declined catastrophically since the construction of the Libby Dam, in 1975.
Threats: Libby Dam has increased waterflows and temperatures above natural levels during the winter months critical to burbot spawning and fry survival.
Listing History: Listing petition submitted on 2-2-00 by American Wildlands and the Idaho Conservation League.
Action To Be Taken: 90-finding on listing petition.


Miami blue butterfly (Hemiargus thomasi)

Range & Status: FL, West Indies. This small bright blue butterfly was once widely distributed from Hillsborough and Volusia counties south in Florida and the West Indies, the U.S population of this species is now restricted to the Florida Keys.
Threats: Urban development.
Listing History: Listing petition has been filed.
Action To Be Taken: 90-day and 12-month finding.

 

 

 

 


Bonneville cutthroat trout (Onchorhyncus clarki utah)

Range & Status: UT,NV, ID,WY. This subspecies evolved in the prehistoric lake Bonneville. When this dried up 8000 years ago it retained its range in rivers, streams, and lakes of the Bonneville Basin of Utah, Nevada, Idaho, and Wyoming. Most of its historic and current range is in Utah where it is the state fish. Unfortunately the fish is now only present in 3.7 % of its historic range, and only a few populations are of pure stock.
Threats: Hybridization, channelization, water diversions, dams, urban development, herbicide spraying sedimentation from livestock grazing, mining, logging and road building which has damaged spawning substrates and raised water temperatures.
Listing History: Listing petition filed on 2-26-98 by Biodiversity Legal Foundation. 90-day finding issued by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service on 12-14-98.
Action To Be Taken: 12-month finding.


Big Cypress fox squirrel (Sciurus niger avicennia)

Range & Status: FL. This most southernly subspecies of the fox squirrel is endemic to southwestern Florida, south of the Caloosahaatchcc river and west of the true Everglades.
Threats: Habitat loss, fragmentation, and modification, fire suppression, predation, road mortality, and poaching.
Listing History: Listing petition filed by Biodiversity legal foundation on 12-30-97. 90-day finding issued by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service on 9-9-98. Litigation filed due to lack of 12-month finding.
Action To Be Taken: 12-month finding.

 

 


Rota bridled white-eye (Zosterops conspicillata rotensis)

Range & Status: Rota (Mariana Islands) Restricted to four patches of native old growth forest. The subspecies has declined 89% from 1982 levels
Threats: Habitat loss, disease, pesticides.
Listing History: Petitioned for listing by The International Council for Bird Preservation on 11-24-80. The species has been a candidate for listing since 1981.
Action To Be Taken: Proposed listing rule.

 

 


Sacramento Mountains checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas anicia cloudcrofti)

Range & Status: NM. The Sacramento Mountains checkerspot is found only in high mountain meadows in the vicinity of Cloudcroft in the Sacramento Mountains, Otero county, New Mexico. It is closely associated with its larval foodplant, the New Mexico penstemon.
Threats: Habitat loss, land trades, livestock grazing, and pesticide spraying.
Listing History: Listing petition filed on 1-26-98 by Center for Biological Diversity. 90-day finding issued on 12-29-99.
Action To Be Taken: Proposed listing rule.


Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis)

Range & Status: CA (Channel Islands). There are six distinct subspecies of island fox (San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, San Nicolas, Santa Catalina, San Clemente) , each inhabiting a different island. Four of these Species (San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz and the Santa Catalina) are in grave danger of extinction unless aggressive management actions are undertaken. By 1999 there were just 15 San Miguel foxes left, All but one of these was captured in an attempt to save the species.
Threats: Colonization of the islands by golden eagles in the absence of bald eagles which were extirpated by DDT poisoning; introduction of canine distemper via domestic dogs, habitat fragmentation associated with development, and habitat loss caused by introduced livestock and game species.
Listing History: Listing petition filed on 6-1-00 for four of the six subspecies (San Miguel Island fox, Santa Rosa Island fox, Santa Cruz Island fox, and Santa Catalina island fox), by Center for Biological Diversity and the Institute for Wildlife Studies.
Action To Be Taken: Proposed listing rule.


Gila Chub (Gila intermedia)

Range & Status: AZ, NM, Sonora (Mexico). Historically, the Gila chub was found in most headwater streams of the Gila River drainage in Arizona and New Mexico, and within the Santa Cruz and San Pedro river systems of Arizona and Sonora, Mexico. It is thought to be extirpated from New Mexico. In Sonora, it was recently found in two cienegas near the headwaters of the San Pedro River. In Arizona it is reduced to fewer than 15 small streams in central and southeastern areas of the state.
Threats: Livestock grazing, groundwater pumping, water diversion, dams, road building, and exotic species.
Listing History: Listing petition filed on 6-5-98 by Center for Biological Diversity and Sky Island Watch.
Action To Be Taken: Proposed listing rule with critical habitat.


Koster's tryonia (Tryonia kosteri)

Range & Status: NM. Koster's tryonia occurs in 5 springs in Chave county New Mexico, including 4 in Bitter Lake National Wildlife refuge. Historically also found in the Roswell area of New Mexico.
Threats: Groundwater pumping and habitat destruction.
Listing History. Listing petition filed by the New Mexico Department of Fish & Game in 1985. Warranted, but precluded finding issued by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service on 7-1-87
Action To Be Taken: Proposed listing rule with critical habitat.


Noel's amphipod (Gammarus desperatus)

Range & Status: NM. Bitter Lake National Wildlife refuge. Historically also found in the Roswell area of New Mexico.
Threats: Groundwater pumping and habitat destruction.
Listing History: The National Speleological Society filed a listing petition on 09-09-74.
Action To Be Taken: Proposed listing rule with critical habitat.


Pecos assiminea (Assiminea pecos)

Range & Status: NM, TX including Bitter Lake National Wildlife refuge. Historically also found in the Roswell area of New Mexico.
Threats: Groundwater pumping and habitat destruction.
Listing History: Listing petition filed by the New Mexico Department of Fish & Game in 1985.
Action To Be Taken: Proposed listing rule with critical habitat.


Roswell springsnail (Pyrgulopsis roswellensis)

Range & Status: NM. Koster's tyronia occurs in 5 springs in Chave county New Mexico, including 4 in Bitter Lake National Wildlife refuge.
Threats: Groundwater pumping and habitat destruction.
Listing History: Listing petition filed by the New Mexico Department of Fish & Game in 1985.
Action To Be Taken: Proposed listing rule with critical habitat.


Pygmy Rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis) Washington Population

Range & Status: WA.This the smallest of U.S. rabbits is an endemic of the Central Columbia Plateau, the Washington population has been seperated from the species core range for thousands of years. Though historically found in Benton, Adams, Grant, Lincoln, and Douglas counties it is currently only found at 5 isolated shrub-steppe sites in Douglas County. There may be as few as 50 individuals in the largest population.
Threats: loss of habitat due to agricultural conversion
Listing History: None.
Action To Be Taken: Emergency listing.


Carson Wandering Skipper (Pseudocopaeodes eunus obscurus)

Range & Status:CA, NV. Five subspecies of wandering skipper exist. The Carson subspecies probably occurred from Carson Hot Springs to the Carson River prior to European settlement. It currently exists only at 2 sites. One near Carson City, Nevada, at Winnemucca Ranch in Washoe County, Nevada, and the other, near Honey Lake in Lassen County, California.
Threats: Development, diversions, earth berms, and a to-date incomplete wetland mitigation project have eliminated almost all of this butterflies habitat in the Carson City area. The remaining butterflies are in jeopardy due to livestock grazing, OHV activity, encroaching development, changes in the water table and pesticide drift.
Listing History: The species has been a candidate for federal listing. On 11-6-00, the Xerces Society petitioned for emergency listing.
Action To Be Taken: Emergency listing.


Tumbling Creek cavesnail (Antrobia culveri)

Range & Status: MS. This snail is only known from one cave in Missouri, where its numbers have been in steep decline (82% between 1973 and 1995)
Threats: probably due to water pollution.
Listing History: The species has been a candidate for listing since 1989.
Action To Be Taken: Emergency listing.


 


April 30, 2002